Software

New GNOME Human Interface Guidelines now official – and obviously some people hate it

Update better aligned with GTK widgets but UI is controversial


Red Hat's Allan Day, a member of the GNOME design team, has said that the project's new Human Interface Guidelines (HIG) are now official.

The GNOME HIG, as Day explained back in May, was "fairly out of date" both in terms of technical changes for GNOME 40 and GTK (GNOME Toolkit) 4 and also what he called "contemporary design practice."

GTK 4.x was released in December 2020, and GNOME 40 in March this year, though many Linux distributions are still using GNOME 3.38. Day noted on Twitter that "the new GNOME HIG is now official. There's more work to be done, but I'm pretty pleased with it overall."

A key change is that the design patterns all reference GTK widgets that can be used to implement the pattern, something Day described as an "effort to bring the HIG closer to the platform." There are more specialist widgets than before, again making it easier to implement the patterns, such as widgets for preferences windows. The new guidelines also cover tooltips, which were omitted before. Accessibility is no longer the subject of a separate guide, but is now part of the standard guidelines, "as it should be," said Day.

In 2019, Day spoke at the GUADEC event, GNOME's main annual conference, about the user experience (UX) strategy for the project. He conducted in-depth interviews with three groups of users about their choice of desktop, not limiting himself to GNOME users. "People's expectations have been raised: they are less inclined to accept poor quality software than they were in the past," he said in a series of posts based on the presentation. He highlighted the importance of polish and refinement, integration with cloud, and the relationship between developers and designers.

Despite the effort that has gone into GNOME 40 and the new HIG, the updates to GNOME are contentious. "I really like the GNOME 3.38 design… However, the GNOME 40 looks like the unproductive thing that gives you pain," said one user, while another called the HIG "Insanity specified… How else would you come up with a filechooser no one can use, or an OK-Button of a dialog in the window title bar." However, another said: "I think Gnome's Interface Guidelines are very well done… Daily use is nice and doesn't get in the way while using software. People coming from other OS get used to it quite easily."

The guidelines state that "primary menus are typically placed at the end (in Western locales on the right) of the header bar," and that "secondary menus are located in the header bar, and are used to contain actions and settings for a particular view or content item." The positioning of menus in the window's header bar has proved fiddly and counterintuitive for some.

An operating system in development, helloSystem, was inspired by early design guidelines for the Mac, including global menus as advocated by usability expert Bruce Tognazzini, formerly of Apple.

Inconsistency: GNOME Web (rear) has menus in the header bar, Firefox (front) does not

Few would argue against the idea that consistency of design and appearance helps users to navigate an operating system and its applications, so the guidelines are important. There is another issue, though, which is that many Linux applications are cross-platform and their developers have a difficult decision: is it better for their application to look and feel the same on all platforms, or to adopt the conventions of the operating system as far as possible? In practice there is a bit of both. Neither Firefox nor LibreOffice have menus in the header bar, to take two examples that are among the most popular Linux applications.

In a recent post on "apps getting worse", XML co-inventor Tim Bray noted that "any time you make any change to a popular product, you've imposed a retraining cost on its users." This means that any change will be resisted by some because it introduces new friction. Bray also said: "No PM [Product Manager] in history has ever said 'This seems to be working pretty well, let's leave it the way it is.' Because that's not bold. That's not visionary. That doesn't get you promoted." Although GNOME as an open-source project is not subject to these same constraints, there is still pressure to make bold improvements that may not always go down well with users. Microsoft has revamped the Start menu in the forthcoming Windows 11 and will no doubt face complaints from users now familiar with the Windows 10 Start menu, which itself was a reaction to complaints about Windows 8, which radically changed the popular Windows 7 Start menu.

One complaint about the new GNOME guidelines is that they embrace the idea of hiding less-used options and features for the sake of a simpler experience, saying "don't overwhelm people with too many elements at once. Use progressive disclosure and navigation structures to provide a guided experience." The downside is loss of discoverability, and the fact that some actions take more clicks or keypresses to accomplish, leading to complaints that the UI is designed to "make everything take as many clicks as possible."

The HIG for GNOME 3.38 said almost the same thing: "Use progressive disclosure to show controls when they are needed... showing every possible control all the time makes an application harder to use, since users have to navigate controls that are often not relevant. Instead, only show controls when they are needed." Right or wrong, that design principle is not exclusive to the GNOME 40 wave of changes. ®

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Linus Torvalds says Rust is coming to the Linux kernel 'real soon now'

Maintainer lack of familiarity won't be an issue, chief insists, citing his own bafflement when faced with Perl

At The Linux Foundation's Open Source Summit in Austin, Texas on Tuesday, Linus Torvalds said he expects support for Rust code in the Linux kernel to be merged soon, possibly with the next release, 5.20.

At least since last December, when a patch added support for Rust as a second language for kernel code, the Linux community has been anticipating this transition, in the hope it leads to greater stability and security.

In a conversation with Dirk Hohndel, chief open source officer at Cardano, Torvalds said the patches to integrate Rust have not yet been merged because there's far more caution among Linux kernel maintainers than there was 30 years ago.

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I love the Linux desktop, but that doesn't mean I don't see its problems all too well

Fragmentation has put paid to the dream of this OS ever being bigger than Windows

Comment Recently, The Register's Liam Proven wrote tongue in cheek about the most annoying desktop Linux distros. He inspired me to do another take.

Proven pointed out that Distrowatch currently lists 270 – count 'em – Linux distros. Of course, no one can look at all of those. But, having covered the Linux desktop since the big interface debate was between Bash and zsh rather than GNOME vs KDE, and being the editor-in-chief of a now-departed publication called Linux Desktop, I think I've used more of them than anyone else who also has a life beyond the PC. In short, I love the Linux desktop.

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WSL2 on Windows Server 2022 hits Windows Update

Devs who like a Linux flavor to their server code get a gift from Redmond

Microsoft has made it official. Windows Subsystem for Linux 2 distributions are now supported on Windows Server 2022.

The technology emerged in preview form last month and represented somewhat of an about-face from the Windows giant, whose employees had previously complained that while the tech was handy for desktop users, sticking it on a server might mean it gets used for things for which it wasn't intended.

(And Windows Server absolutely had to have the bloated user interface of its desktop stablemate as well, right?)

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End-of-life smartphone? Penguins at postmarketOS aim to revive it

Alpine-based distro runs on old mobiles abandoned by Android and their manufacturers

A Linux distro for smartphones abandoned by their manufacturers, postmarketOS, has introduced in-place upgrades.

Alpine Linux is a very minimal general-purpose distro that runs well on low-end kit, as The Reg FOSS desk found when we looked at version 3.16 last month. postmarketOS's – pmOS for short – version 22.06 is based on the same version.

This itself is distinctive. Most other third-party smartphone OSes, such as LineageOS or GrapheneOS, or the former CyanogenMod, are based on the core of Android itself.

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Leading Arch Linux derivative Manjaro puts out version 21.3

A simpler, easier remix sounds like a good thing, but glitches like these shouldn't be in a point release

Version 21.3 of Manjaro - codenamed "Ruah" - is here, with kernel 5.15, but don't let its beginner-friendly billing fool you: you will need a clue with this one.

Manjaro Linux is one of the more popular Arch Linux derivatives, and the new version 21.3 is the latest update to version 21, released in 2021. There are three official variants, with GNOME 42.2, KDE 5.24.5 or Xfce 4.16 desktops, plus community builds with Budgie, Cinnamon, MATE, a choice of tiling window managers (i3 or Sway), plus a Docker image.

The Reg took its latest look at Arch Linux a few months ago. Arch is one of the older rolling-release distros, and it's also famously rather minimal. The installation process isn't trivial: it's driven from the command line, and the user does a lot of the hard work, manually partitioning disks and so on.

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Unbelievably clever: Redbean 2 – a single-file web server that runs on six OSes

'Write once, run anywhere' finally came true, thanks to APE and the Cosmopolitan libc

A bunch of almost unbelievably clever tech tricks come together into something practical with redbean 2: a webserver plus content in a single file that runs on any x86-64 operating system.

The project is the culmination – so far – of a series of remarkable, inspired hacks by programmer Justine Tunney: αcτµαlly pδrταblε εxεcµταblε, Cosmopolitan libc, and the original redbean. It may take a little time to explain what it does, so bear with us. We promise, you will be impressed.

To begin with, redbean uses a remarkable hack known as APE, which stands for Actually Portable Executable – which its author styles αcτµαlly pδrταblε εxεcµταblε. (If you know the Greek alphabet, this reads as "actmally pdrtable execmtable", but hey, it looks cool.)

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Not a GNOME fan, and like the look of Windows? Try KDE Plasma or Cinnamon

New versions of both desktops drop... with one the oldest FOSS 'top around

Right after the latest release of the KDE Frameworks comes the Plasma Desktop 5.25 plus the default desktop for the forthcoming Linux Mint 23.

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Ubuntu releases Core 22: Its IoT and edge distro

A tougher nut to crack than the regular flavor, some will find it very tasty

Canonical's Linux distro for edge devices and the Internet of Things, Ubuntu Core 22, is out.

This is the fourth release of Ubuntu Core, and as you might guess from the version number, it's based on the current Long Term Support release of Ubuntu, version 22.04.

Ubuntu Core is quite a different product from normal Ubuntu, even the text-only Ubuntu Server. Core has no conventional package manager, just Snap, and the OS itself is built from Snap packages. Snap installations and updates are transactional: this means that either they succeed completely, or the OS automatically rolls them back, leaving no trace except an entry in a log file.

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SpiralLinux: Anonymous creator of GeckoLinux puts out new Debian remix

Yes, yet another Debian downstream, but a particularly interesting one

SpiralLinux is the result of the creator of GeckoLinux turning their attention to Debian – with an interesting outcome.

Some Linux distros have many remixes and respins, while some have very few. For example, there are multiple downstream variants of Debian and Ubuntu, but very few of Fedora. The Reg FOSS desk is only aware of one for openSUSE: GeckoLinux, whose Rolling edition we looked at earlier this year.

Now, the creator of GeckoLinux – who prefers to remain anonymous – has turned their attention to one of the most-remixed distros there is, Debian, to create SpiralLinux. What can a new remix bring to the already-crowded table of Debian meta-distributions? (That is: distributions built from other distributions.)

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Ubuntu Touch OTA-23 is coming: Do you have one of the older model phones that can test it?

Linux fondleslab effort continues to update 16.04-based phone/tablet distro

The UBPorts community is in the final stages of preparing its next release and it's calling for testers.

OTA-23 is getting close – the project's Github kanban looks quite good to us – and if you're lucky enough to have one of the project's supported devices lying around, then you can help.

Many of them are a few years old now, so there's a good chance that you've already replaced them and they sit unloved and neglected in a drawer. The starred entries in the list of devices are the best supported and should have no show-stopping problems. In order of seniority, that means: the LG-made Google Nexus 5 (2013); the original Oneplus One (2014); two models of Sony Xperia X, the F5121 and F5122 (2016); and Google's Pixel 3a and 3a XL (2019).

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